98% of circumcisions in the US are performed with no anesthesia. A study conducted at the Institute of Child Development and Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, found extremely elevated cortisol levels in baby boys after their circumcision surgeries. Another study conducted at the University of Iowa found that serum cortisol levels STILL skyrocketed when the dorsal penile nerve was numbed using lidocaine. No surprise considering the dorsal penile nerve cannot be fully numbed via injection. When those well meaning nurses tell you that your baby "took it like a champ" or "slept right through it" they are misunderstanding what they are seeing. The baby is not sleeping, he is in a semi-comatose state, due to the extreme pain and stress that occurs while being circumcised. Circumcision is NOT a painless procedure, the foreskin is NOT just a flap of skin, and baby boys do not just sleep through this unnecessary cosmetic surgery.